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Survival of Igα-Deficient Mature B Cells Requires BAFF-R Function.

2017-05-08

Boerhavia diffusa (B. diffusa), also known as Punarnava, is an indigenous plant in India and an important component in traditional Indian medicine. The accurate identification and collection of this medicinal herb is vital to enhance the drug's efficacy and biosafety. In this study, a DNA barcoding technique has been applied to identify and distinguish B. diffusa from its closely-related species. The phylogenetic analysis was carried out for the four species of Boerhavia using barcode candidates including nuclear ribosomal DNA regions ITS, ITS1, ITS2 and the chloroplast plastid gene psbA-trnH. Sequence alignment revealed 26% polymorphic sites in ITS, 30% in ITS1, 16% in ITS2 and 6% in psbA-trnH, respectively. Additionally, a phylogenetic tree was constructed for 15 species using ITS sequences which clearly distinguished B. diffusa from the other species. The ITS1 demonstrates a higher transition/transversion ratio, percentage of variation and pairwise distance which differentiate B. diffusa from other species of Boerhavia. Our study revealed that ITS and ITS1 could be used as potential candidate regions for identifying B. diffusa and for authenticating its herbal products.

The roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L., commonly known as 'Punarnava', are used by a large number of tribes in India for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study the effect of seasons, thickness of roots and form of dose (either aqueous or powder) were studied for their hepatoprotective action to prove the claims made by the different tribes of India. The hepatoprotective activity of roots of different diameters collected in three seasons, rainy, summer and winter, was examined in thioacetamide intoxicated rats. The results showed that an aqueous extract (2 ml/kg) of roots of diameter 1-3 cm, collected in the month of May (Summer), exhibited marked protection of a majority of serum parameters, i.e. GOT, GPT, ACP and ALP, but not GLDH and bilirubin, thereby suggesting the proper size and time of collection of B. diffusa L. roots for the most desirable results. Further, the studies also proved that the aqueous form of drug (2 ml/kg) administration has more hepatoprotective activity than the powder form; this is probably due to the better absorbtion of the liquid form through the intestinal tract.

The results revealed that overall clinical improvement was better in Group A when compared to Group B. Hemoglobin was increased in patients of Group A, which was statistically significant. No adverse drug reaction was observed during the treatment period.

In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks.

The roots of Boerhaavia diffusa L., commonly known as 'Punarnava', are used by a large number of tribes in India for the treatment of various hepatic disorders. In the present study the effect of seasons, thickness of roots and form of dose (either aqueous or powder) were studied for their hepatoprotective action to prove the claims made by the different tribes of India. The hepatoprotective activity of roots of different diameters collected in three seasons, rainy, summer and winter, was examined in thioacetamide intoxicated rats. The results showed that an aqueous extract (2 ml/kg) of roots of diameter 1-3 cm, collected in the month of May (Summer), exhibited marked protection of a majority of serum parameters, i.e. GOT, GPT, ACP and ALP, but not GLDH and bilirubin, thereby suggesting the proper size and time of collection of B. diffusa L. roots for the most desirable results. Further, the studies also proved that the aqueous form of drug (2 ml/kg) administration has more hepatoprotective activity than the powder form; this is probably due to the better absorbtion of the liquid form through the intestinal tract.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate any possibility of teratogenic effects in Boerhaavia diffusa (Punarnava), a widely used herbal medicine for renal and urinary tract diseases by Ayurvedic physicians in India. The ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE) was administered daily in a dose of 250 mg/kg, body weight p.o., to pregnant albino female rats during the entire period of gestation. BDE was found to be devoid of any teratogenic effect as litter size and survival rate of foetuses were the same as for the normal control group and no foetal anomaly could be detected.

The results revealed that overall clinical improvement was better in Group A when compared to Group B. Hemoglobin was increased in patients of Group A, which was statistically significant. No adverse drug reaction was observed during the treatment period.