Structural basis for the interference between nicorandil and sulfonylurea action.
To compare the contributions of electron microscopy (EM) and immunocytochemistry (ICC) as adjuncts in the cytodiagnosis of malignant small round cell tumors (MSRCT).
We have recently reported that Ser/Thr phosphatases play a key role in regulating natural killer (NK) cell lytic activity and that calyculin A and okadaic acid affect this activity differently [Bajpai and Brahmi (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 18864-18869]. Here, we investigate a mechanism that might account for this differential action of calyculin A and okadaic acid on NK cells. Calyculin A specifically inhibited the lytic activity of YT-INDY, an NK-like cell line, and hyperphosphorylated 60 and 78 kDa proteins. The kinetics of appearance of these two proteins was correlated with the loss of lytic activity. In contrast, okadaic acid did not significantly affect either of these activities. The 78 kDa protein is localized in the cytosolic compartment whereas the 60 kDa protein is distributed equally between the membrane and the cytosolic fractions. Both proteins display a kinase activity and are phosphorylated mainly at serine and threonine residues but not at tyrosine residues. The activation of these kinases is specific to calyculin A treatment; it is independent of protein kinase C, protein kinase A, Ca2+, phosphotyrosine phosphatase and protein synthesis de novo. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that calyculin A, but not okadaic acid, hyper-phosphorylates two proteins with Ser/Thr kinase activity, thus explaining the differential regulation of NK cells by these two Ser/Thr phosphatase inhibitors.
Evidence from various healthcare systems indicates that abortion is safe and efficacious among adolescent and young women. Clinical services should promote access to safe abortion for adolescents.
The title compound, C15H18ClN5O2, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In both mol-ecules, the isoxazolidine rings have an envelope conformation with the O atoms at the flap positions. Each mol-ecule has three stereogenic centres with configurations 2(S), 3(S) and 4(R), confirmed by resonant scattering. Their conformations are significantly different, for example in mol-ecule A the phenyl ring is inclined to the triazole ring by 32.5 (2)°, while in mol-ecule B the corresponding dihedral angle is 10.7 (2)°. In the crystal, the A and B mol-ecules are linked via an N-H⋯O and a C-H⋯O hydrogen bond. These units are linked by C-H⋯O and C-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the ab plane. There are C-H⋯π inter-actions present within the slabs.
To study the efficacy of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (SBME) in subjects with age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) without any evidence of dementia or psychiatric disorder.
To assess learning and memory activity of BG in normal rats.
Both Current Contents on Diskette and Reference Update provide an excellent mechanism for keeping abreast of the biomedical literature with a personal computer. Both systems are compatible with the two major database management programs for manipulating reprint files. Reference Update exports directly to Reference Manager (a choice on the main menu). Exporting to a file can also be done with one of four formats: Table of Contents, MEDLINE, Full, and One Line. To export Reference Update records into Pro-Cite, for example, the records must first be downloaded into MEDLINE format. Current Contents on Diskette also exports in four different formats: MEDLINE, Comma Delimited, Screen Image, and DIALOG. MEDLINE corresponds to Reference Manager format, and Comma Delimited corresponds to Pro-Cite format. Both products include reprint request systems that can be used directly from the programs. The two products share many features and differ primarily in terms of journal coverage. Current Contents on Diskette provides document delivery by means of the Genuine Article service, and Reference Update offers a synonym feature. Both programs are attractive alternatives to manual or on-line searching of the biomedical literature.
To identify barriers to control of a Victorian primary school-based measles outbreak.
In Ewing's sarcoma, with the help of FCI, positive results were obtained in an additional 4 samples in CK, 2 samples in actin and 3 samples in desmin. Similarly, one each sample was additional positive regarding Mic-2 and vimentin by IC. In cases of neuroblastoma with the help of FCI, additional positive results were obtained in one each sample of CK, LCA and NB and two in actin. Combined use of FCI and IC helped to show chromogranin positivity in an additional two cases. Divergent differentiation was noted in four cases of Ewing's sarcoma, one neuroblastoma and two peripheral neuroectodermal tumors.
Brahmi exhibited significant decrease in duration of immobility in FST and reduced the shock induced decrease in activity in SID models. It didn't show any activity in the TST model.
Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate and adaptive immune responses to obligate intracellular pathogens. Nevertheless, the regulation of NK cell trafficking and migration to inflammatory sites is poorly understood. Exodus-1/MIP-3alpha/LARC, Exodus-2/6Ckine/SLC, and Exodus-3/MIP-3beta/ELC/CKbeta-11 are CC chemokines that share a unique aspartate-cysteine-cysteine-leucine motif near their amino terminus and preferentially stimulate the migration of T lymphocytes. The effects of Exodus chemokines on human NK cells were examined. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce detectable chemotaxis of resting peripheral blood NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-2 and -3 stimulated migration of polyclonal activated peripheral blood NK cells in a dose-dependent fashion. Exodus-2 and -3 also induced dose-dependent chemotaxis of NKL, an IL-2-dependent human NK cell line. Results of modified checkerboard assays indicate that migration of NKL cells in response to Exodus-2 and -3 represents true chemotaxis and not simply chemokinesis. Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not induce NK cell proliferation in the absence of other stimuli. Nevertheless, Exodus-2 and -3 significantly augmented IL-2-induced proliferation of normal human CD56(dim) NK cells. In contrast, Exodus-1, -2, and -3 did not affect the cytolytic activity of resting or activated peripheral blood NK cells. Expression of message for CCR7, a shared receptor for Exodus-2 and -3, was detected in activated polyclonal NK cells and NKL cells but not resting NK cells. Taken together, these results indicate that Exodus-2 and -3 can participate in the recruitment and proliferation of activated NK cells. Exodus-2 and -3 may regulate interactions between T cells and NK cells that are crucial for the generation of optimal immune responses.