Stenotrophomonas maltophilia as a part of normal oral bacterial flora in captive snakes and its susceptibility to antibiotics.
The pro-inflammatory tigliane esters 12-deoxyphorbolphenylacetate (12-DOPPA) and 12-deoxyphorbolphenylacetate-20-acetate (12-DOPPAA) at a dose of 0.1 microgram induced erythema in the mouse ear. Observations of ear redness were made both two and four hours after application. Indomethacin was only partly successful as an antagonist since 10% inhibition of 12-DOPPA and no inhibition of 12-DOPPAA induced erythema was produced four hours after application. The free radical scavengers, phenol, thioanisole and sodium benzoate all produced less than 30% inhibition of 12-DOPPA induced erythema and less than 15% inhibition of 12-DOPPAA, whereas aminopyrine produced 70% and 25% inhibition of 12-DOPPA and 12-DOPPAA respectively. The fact that free radical scavengers (with the exception of aminopyrine) and indomethacin, failed to markedly change the mouse ear reaction to 12-deoxyphorbol esters, indicated that this erythema is not entirely mediated via cyclooxygenase products. Mepyramine and cyproheptadine also failed to inhibit the erythema, whereas hydrocortisone produced a 55% inhibition of the 12-DOPPA and a 20% inhibition of the 12-DOPPAA reaction. The membrane stabilising agents trifluoperazine, promethazine, imipramine and desmethylimipramine were the most successful compounds used in inhibiting both 12-DOPPA and 12-DOPPAA induced erythema. In addition propranolol, which inhibits stimulus activation of phospholipase A2, produced 70% and 55% inhibition of the reaction of mice ears to 12-DOPPA and 12-DOPPAA.
The structure of gastrozepin (G) resembles that of tricyclic antidepressants and antihistaminic and antiserotonic cyproheptadine which are compounds with known metabolic effects. The object of this study was to test the potential action of G on the metabolism of basic nutrients, insulin and selected hormonal parameters after parenteral administration (10 and 20 mg G) and after chronic oral administration (50 mg G) during antiulcer therapy. Investigations carried out in two groups of 7 and 9 healthy volunteers, respectively, and on one group of seven patients with ulcer disease, revealed no changes in any of the blood parameters studied, nor in the excretion of catecholamines or 17-OH steroids in the urine. Our observations practically rule out any metabotropic activity of G, thereby differentiating it from tricyclic antidepressants and cyproheptadine. Isolated significant differences from the basal value seen after G and saline, can be attributed to other than pharmacological or specific mechanisms such as stress associated with the first examination, effect of fasting, individual response of the subjects, and so on.
The reviewed treatments for ASD are commonly used, and some are supported by prospective RCTs. Promising treatments include melatonin, antioxidants, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, naltrexone, and music therapy. All of the reviewed treatments are currently considered off-label for ASD (ie, not FDA-approved) and some have adverse effects. Further studies exploring these treatments are needed. Physicians treating children with an ASD should make it standard practice to inquire about each child's possible use of these types of treatments.
Using double immunohistochemical stainings, and in situ hybridization.
Of the 22 patients treated with amitriptyline, 16 (73%) had a complete response while 4 (18%) had a partial response. Of the 6 patients treated with cyproheptadine, 4 (66%) had a complete response and 1 (17%) had a partial response. Thus, 91% of the amitriptyline group and 83% of the cyproheptadine group had at least a partial response to therapy. No patients experienced significant side effects to either medication.
Two hours after s.c. formaldehyde (5%, 200 microL) in one hindpaw of rats, the neurons of c-fos-like immunoreactivity (FLI), somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (Som-LI), Som-LI/FLI, and perprosomatostatin mRNA (PPS-mRNA) in ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn were increased obviously, as compared with the control group. The FLI and Som-LI of spinal cord were not changed by i.p. Cor. Cor (25 or 12.5 U.kg-1, i.p.) inhibited the formaldehyde-evoked FLI, Som-LI, Som-LI/FLI, and PPS-mRNA of spinal cord in a dose-dependent manner. The decrease of c-fos or Som level due to i.p. Cor in rats of chronic pain was prevented by raphe nuclei injected cyproheptadine, but not by bicuculline, naloxone, or phentolamin injected to raphe nuclei.
In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, parallel-group study, 565 patients with ragweed SAR, ages 12 to 70 years, received either ebastine 20 mg, ebastine 10 mg, loratadine 10 mg, or placebo once daily for 4 weeks. Patients recorded morning and evening reflective scores (past 12 hours) as well as snapshot scores (at time of recording) for nasal discharge, congestion, sneezing, itching, and total eye symptoms. Total symptom score (TSS) is the sum of these 5 scores.
Japanese cedar pollinosis, a common disease with morbidity of approximately 20% in the Japanese population, is characterized by subjectively irritating symptoms during an annual 3-month period.