Yet Another Doctor Blog On The Internet

Pre emptive analgesia for reducing pain after cholecystectomy: Oral tramadol vs. acetaminophen codeine.

2017-05-09

Contamination of surface waters by pharmaceutical chemicals has raised concern among environmental scientists because of the potential for negative effects on aquatic organisms. Of particular importance are pharmaceutical compounds that affect the nervous or endocrine systems because effects on aquatic organisms are possible at low environmental concentrations. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are drugs used to treat clinical depression in humans, and have been detected in low concentrations in surface waters. In this investigation, the acute and chronic toxicity of five SSRIs (fluoxetine, Prozac; fluvoxamine, Luvox; paroxetine, Paxil; citalopram, Celexa; and sertraline, Zoloft) were evaluated in the daphnid Ceriodaphnia dubia. For each SSRI, the 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was determined in three static tests with neonate C. dubia, and chronic (8-d) tests were conducted to determine no-observable-effect concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observable-effect concentrations (LOEC) for reproduction endpoints. The 48-h LC50 for the SSRIs ranged from 0.12 to 3.90 mg/L and the order of toxicity of the compounds was (lowest to highest): Citalopram, fluvoxamine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, sertraline. Mortality data for the 8-d chronic tests were similar to the 48-h acute data. The SSRIs negatively affected C. dubia reproduction by reducing the number of neonates per female, and for some SSRIs, by reducing the number of broods per female. For sertraline, the most toxic SSRI, the LOEC for the number of neonates per female was 0.045 mg/L and the NOEC was 0.009 mg/L. Results indicate that SSRIs can impact survival and reproduction of C. dubia; however, only at concentrations that are considerably higher than those expected in the environment.

Retrospective study of prescription claims before and after the tablet-splitting program was implemented.

Total costs, PMPM costs, and switches among SSRIs.

clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00676039.

Generic agents do not require large clinical trials of safety and efficacy to enter the market, although they must demonstrate both pharmacological and bioequivalence to the brand name drug. Bioequivalence is attained when the extent of absorption of the generic falls within an FDA predefined range relative to the brand name drug. This potential variation in bioequivalence is not thought to be clinically meaningful, however, there are reports of a lack of therapeutic equivalence between some generic medications and the brand name. This study examines the potential risks posed by a switch from Celexa to generic citalopram. Twenty patients at an Anxiety Disorders Clinic who were unknowingly switched to generic citalopram, from Celexa (Lundbeck, Montreal, Quebec, Canada) and experienced a re-emergence of their anxiety symptoms or development of new adverse events are described in this case series report. The mean time for re-emergence of symptoms or development of adverse events was 3.4 +/- 1.6 weeks (range 0.5-8 weeks). All patients reestablished previous treatment response with a change back to Celexa in a mean time of 3.8 +/- 2.6 weeks (range 0.7-12 weeks). Given these results, it is important for clinicians to be aware of the potential for loss of treatment effect or symptom re-emergence posed by a switch to a generic agent. Randomized, double blind, controlled investigations would likely provide useful information as current bioequivalence and pharmacological equivalence do not necessarily translate into clinical equivalence.

A 31-year-old man ingested 400 mg of citalopram (Celexa) after an argument with his parents and girlfriend 13 h before presentation. Paramedics witnessed the patient having a generalized clonic seizure. The electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a wide QRS complex, prolongation of the QTc interval, and left bundle branch pattern. He was treated with sodium bicarbonate with resolution of these changes. The patient was continued on a sodium bicarbonate infusion and demonstrated no further EKG abnormalities. Sodium bicarbonate should be considered as a treatment modality in patients with EKG abnormalities of prolongation of QRS or QTc interval after citalopram overdose.

Retrospective study of prescription claims before and after the tablet-splitting program was implemented.

To evaluate a population of cats with selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) toxicosis and characterize the population affected, list products ingested, the clinical signs observed, treatments performed, length of hospitalization, patient outcome, and overall prognosis.

Using regression analysis, sertraline was the only SSRI that showed a downward slope in total cost per month, although the decrease was not statistically significant (P = .1156). Fluoxetine (Prozac--Eli Lilly) and paroxetine (Paxil--GlaxoSmithKline) both showed an upward slope, but the increases were not statistically significant (P = .1164 and .0671, respectively). Citalopram (Celexa--Forest) and fluvoxamine showed significantly positive upward slopes (P = .0001 and .0391, respectively). Sertraline was also the only SSRI that showed a downward slope in PMPM costs (P = .0093). Citalopram, fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, and paroxetine all showed an upward slope in PMPM costs (P = .4494, .0008, .0448, and .0482, respectively). The tablet-splitting program was not associated with a net change in patients being switched to or from sertraline.