Oral antihistamine-decongestant-analgesic combinations for the common cold.
Actinomyces naeslundii has been recovered from traumatized permanent teeth diagnosed with necrotic pulps. In this work, a triple antibiotic paste (TAP)-mimic scaffold is proposed as a drug-delivery strategy to eliminate A. naeslundii dentin biofilm.
The genus Lactobacillus is a taxonomically complex and is composed of over 170 species that cannot be easily differentiated phenotypically and often require molecular identification. Although they are part of the normal human gastrointestinal and vaginal flora, they can also be occasional human pathogens. They are extensively used in a variety of commercial products including probiotics. Their antimicrobial susceptibilities are poorly defined in part because of their taxonomic complexity and are compounded by the different methods recommended by Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and International Dairy Foundation. Their use as probiotics for prevention of Clostridium difficile infection is prevalent among consumers worldwide but raises the question of will the use of any concurrent antibiotic effect their ability to survive. Lactobacillus species are generally acid resistant and are able to survive ingestion. They are generally resistant to metronidazole, aminoglycosides and ciprofloxacin with L. acidophilus being susceptible to penicillin and vancomycin, whereas L. rhamnosus and L. casei are resistant to metronidazole and vancomycin.
A 69-year-old man of Indonesian descent was initially suspected of having a community-acquired pneumonia, which was seen on chest X-ray and computed tomography of the chest. However, a bronchoscopy showed no abnormalities. He was treated with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid in combination with ciprofloxacin. However, nine days after admission he was disorientated and complained of headache. Neurological examination revealed no further abnormalities. A lumbar puncture revealed no evidence of meningitis. He was then transferred to our hospital. At that time, initial cultures of bronchial fluid for Mycobacterium tuberculosis turned positive, as well as polymerase chain reaction for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Later, during his stay in our intensive care unit, he developed periods with hypertension, sinus tachycardia, excessive transpiration, decreased oxygen saturation with tachypnea, pink foamy sputum, and high fever. This constellation of symptoms was accompanied by dystonia in the first days. These episodes lasted approximately 30 minutes and improved after administration of morphine, benzodiazepines or clonidine. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal signal in the region of the hippocampus, thalamus and the anterior parts of the lentiform nucleus and caudate nucleus.
A retrospective cohort study of patients with pharmacy benefits who had ≥1 claim for an oral antimicrobial between 1 January 2008 and 31 December 2008 was conducted, utilizing a pharmacy benefits database. Demographic data including age, gender, chronic disease score (CDS) and geographic location were determined. Warfarin users were defined as any patient with ≥1 claim for warfarin during the follow-up period. Antimicrobials considered high risk for potential interaction with warfarin based on existing literature included trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole and fluconazole. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the impact of warfarin use and other factors on high-risk antimicrobial prescription.
AMR is an ongoing problem in Europe, with high rates of resistance to many previously recommended therapeutic agents observed in many European countries. Continual European and global surveillance of AMR in N gonorrhoeae is essential to monitor for increasing, emerging and high-level resistance to therapeutically relevant agents and to inform treatment guidelines so optimum treatments are administered.
A 21-year-old Malay man with no previous known medical illnesses presented with a sudden onset of peripheral corneal perforation. It was temporarily sealed with a multilayer amniotic membrane followed by patching with a corneoscleral button. One month later, a recurrence of PUK on the donor button was noted. It was successfully treated with oral corticosteroids.
Sixty-nine vaginal swabs and 138 rectal swabs collected from 195 equids were analysed for the presence of thermotolerant bacteria, that is, bacteria surviving at 60+/-0.1 degrees C for one hour. Thermotolerant Escherichia coli, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus species and Pseudomonas species were isolated from 41, 16, nine, three and three of the 138 rectal swabs, respectively; seven of the E coli and two of the Enterobacter species isolates survived pasteurisation at 63.8+/-0.1 degrees C for 30 minutes. All except three E coli, two Enterobacter species and one Proteus species isolate were resistant to three or more antimicrobial drugs, that is, they were multidrug resistant. Thermotolerant E coli, Enterobacter species and Proteus species were isolated from 11, two and two of the 69 vaginal swabs, respectively, but only one isolate of E coli survived pasteurisation at 63.8+/-0.1 degrees C for 30 minutes. All except two of the E coli isolates were multidrug resistant. None of the four thermotolerant isolates from nine soil samples collected on four of the farms where the equids were kept was pasteurisation resistant, but they were all multidrug resistant. Of the 10 pasteurisation-resistant isolates, nine were multidrug resistant but none was resistant to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, cotrimazine, cotrimoxazole or streptomycin. All the isolates grew at 42+/-0.1 degrees C but none grew at 46+/-0.1 degrees C or above. The Enterobacter isolates were more tolerant to pasteurisation than the E coli isolates, particularly during the first few minutes of exposure.