Novel targets for valproic acid: up-regulation of melatonin receptors and neurotrophic factors in C6 glioma cells.
Montelukast plus budesonide nasal spray and desloratadine citrate disodium tablets can work together better on relieving clinical syptoms quickly and promoting the life quality of patients with moderate and severe persistent allergic rhinitis.
When pretreatment and posttreatment apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values of the groups were compared, the most significant difference was observed in the nasal steroid (Ns) + antihistamine (Ah) group (p < 0.05). The ESS results were significantly decreased in the Ns and Ns + Ah groups after treatment (p < 0.05). AHI oxygen saturation <90% were significantly decreased in the Ns and Ns + Ah groups after treatment (p < 0.05).
This multi-center, randomized, double-blind study involved 886 patients (438 on levocetirizine and 448 on desloratadine). The primary objective was to compare their efficacy on the mean pruritus severity score after 1 week of treatment. Mean pruritus severity score over 4 weeks and pruritus duration score, number and size of wheals, mean CIU composite score (sum of the scores for pruritus severity and numbers of wheals), quality of life, and the patient's and investigator's global satisfaction with treatment, were secondary efficacy measures.
Histamine and leukotrienes act to exert numerous local and systemic effects that contribute to the pathophysiology of allergic rhinitis. The aim of these experiments was to evaluate the nasal decongestant effects of loratadine and montelukast alone and in combination in a feline model of nasal congestion. We also studied the decongestant actions of the alpha-agonist adrenergic agonist D-pseudoephedrine with and without desloratadine.
Muscle tone was measured on tracheal segments of guinea-pigs. The H1-receptor was overexpressed by transfection and detected by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy. NF-kappaB and AP-1 activities were assessed by reporter gene assays in cells overexpressing or not overexpressing the H1-receptor. Production of regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed andsecreted (RANTES), a chemokine whose expression is induced through NF-kappaB, was measured using an immunoassay.
Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects a large percentage of paediatric patients. With the wide array of available agents, it has become a challenge to choose the most appropriate treatment for patients. Second-generation antihistamines have become increasingly popular because of their comparable efficacy and lower incidence of adverse effects relative to their first-generation counterparts, and the safety and efficacy of this drug class are established in the adult population. Data on the use of the second-generation antihistamines oral cetirizine, levocetirizine, loratadine, desloratadine and fexofenadine, and the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast as well as azelastine nasal spray in infants and children are evaluated in this review. These agents have been found to be relatively safe and effective in reducing symptoms associated with AR in children. Alternative dosage forms such as liquids or oral disintegrating tablets are available for most agents, allowing ease of administration to most young children and infants; however, limited data are available regarding use in infants for most agents, except desloratadine, cetirizine and montelukast. Unlike their predecessors, such as astemizole and terfenadine, the newer second-generation antihistamines and montelukast appear to be well tolerated, with absence of cardiotoxicities. Comparative studies are limited to cetirizine versus ketotifen, oxatomide and/or montelukast. Although second-generation antihistamines and montelukast are deemed relatively safe for use in paediatric patients, there are some noteworthy drug interactions to consider when selecting an agent. Given the wide variety of available agents for treatment of AR in paediatric patients, the safety and efficacy data available for specific age groups, type of AR, dosage form availability and cost should be considered when selecting treatment for AR in infants and children.
In this paper the new antihistamines: fexofenadine, desloratadine, norastemizole, levocetirizine etc. are presented. The toxicity and adverse effect of these drugs are discussed with special regard to interaction with other drugs and their influence on sedation and circulatory system.
Patients known to have at least one strongly positive (+ +) test with an allergen were re-patch tested after 14 to 70 days (average time interval 26.3 days) of administering oral desloratadine 5 mg twice a day for 5 days before and during the test. Patch testing was performed with the previously recognized allergen according to the guidelines of the ICDRG. The -to + + + system was converted into numeric values (0, 1, 2, 3, 4) for statistic evaluation.
Histamine is a key mediator in the development of allergy symptoms, and oral H(1)-antihistamines are among the most widely used treatments for symptomatic relief in conditions such as allergic rhinitis and chronic urticaria. Ebastine is a second-generation antihistamine which has been shown to be an effective treatment for both seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis. In controlled clinical trials in adult and adolescent patients with allergic rhinitis, ebastine 10 mg once-daily improved symptoms to a significantly greater extent than placebo and to a similar extent as loratadine 10 mg and cetirizine 10 mg (both once-daily), while ebastine 20 mg proved to be more effective than these two comparator antihistamines. In addition, ebastine was significantly more effective than placebo at relieving the symptoms of chronic idiopathic urticaria. Ebastine provides efficacy throughout the 24-h dosing interval with once-daily administration and clinical benefit is seen from the first day of treatment. Small studies have found beneficial effects for ebastine in patients with other disorders, including cold urticaria, dermographic urticaria, atopic asthma, mosquito bites and (in combination with pseudoephedrine) the common cold. In addition to the regular ebastine tablet, a fast-dissolving tablet (FDT) formulation, which disintegrates in the mouth without the aid of a drink, is also available. It has been shown to be bioequivalent to the regular tablet, and to be significantly more effective than desloratadine at reducing histamine-induced cutaneous wheals. A number of patient surveys demonstrated that the majority of individuals who tried the fast-dissolving formulation reported it to be convenient for use, fast-acting and preferred it to their previous antihistamine medication. Perhaps most importantly, a large proportion of patients indicated that they would prefer to use this new formulation in the future. Ebastine has a rapid onset of action and it can be administered once-daily, with or without food. Dose modifications are not needed in elderly patients, or in those with renal or mild to moderate hepatic impairment. Ebastine is generally well-tolerated, and clinical studies showed that at usual therapeutic doses of 10 and 20 mg once-daily, it had no clinically relevant adverse effects on cognitive function and psychomotor performance or on cardiovascular function. In conclusion, ebastine is an effective and generally well-tolerated treatment for allergic rhinitis and chronic idiopathic urticaria. In addition to the regular tablet formulation, ebastine is available as a FDT, providing a treatment option that is particularly convenient for patients.