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Impact of intestinal glucuronidation on the pharmacokinetics of raloxifene.


The current study investigates the action of anxiolytics, antidepressants, neuroleptics, antipyretics, muscle relaxants, antihypertensives and naloxone in a novel animal model of anxiety, based on the evidence that mice removed last from their cage develop hyperthermia (stress-induced hyperthermia, SIH) when compared to those removed first. Alprazolam (0.15-0.6 mg/kg), chlordiazepoxide (25 mg/kg), estazolam (1 mg/kg), phenobarbital (20 mg/kg), ethanol (2 and 4 g/kg), buspirone (5 and 10 mg/kg) and prazosin (1 and 2 mg/kg), as well as repeatedly administered diazepam (5 mg/kg), inhibited SIH. In contrast, tofisopam (12.5-200 mg/kg), desipramine (15 and 30 mg/kg), amitriptyline (10 mg/kg), fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg), tranylcypromine (5 and 10 mg/kg), chlorpromazine (1 and 2 mg/kg), clozapine (2 and 4 mg/kg), pimozide (0.5 and 1 mg/kg), l-sulpiride (15 and 30 mg/kg), l-propranolol (5 and 10 mg/kg), acetyl salicylic acid (200 and 400 mg/kg), indomethacin (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), verapamil (2.5 and 5 mg/kg), captopril (25 and 50 mg/kg), dantrolene (10 and 20 mg/kg), mephenesin (300 and 600 mg/kg), d-amphetamine (1 and 4 mg/kg) and naloxone (2.5 and 15 mg/kg) were inactive, as were 10 mg/kg imipramine, amitriptyline and fluoxetine injected every day for 21 days. Reserpine at high doses (1.25 and 2.5 mg/kg) but not at a lower dose (0.62 mg/kg) prevented SIH, but in this case animals showed a behavioural syndrome which could have interfered with the occurrence of the hyperthermia.

1. The aim of the present experiments was to determine whether 5-HT1A receptors play a role in the control of the reflex activation of pulmonary vagal motoneurones. This was carried out by investigating the effects of intracisternal injections (i.c.) of the 5-HT1A receptor ligands, 8-OH-DPAT (50 micrograms kg-1), buspirone (200 micrograms kg-1), WAY-100635 (100 micrograms kg-1), methiothepin (200 micrograms kg-1) and (-)-pindolol (100 micrograms kg-1) and the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinanserin (200 micrograms kg-1), on the reflex bronchoconstriction evoked by inhaled capsaicin aerosol in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked and artificially ventilated cats. Recordings were made of heart rate, blood pressure and upper tracheal pressure. 2. Central application of all the 5-HT1A receptor antagonists (methiothepin, WAY-100635 and (-)-pindolol) attenuated the reflex bronchoconstriction in the upper trachea. However, the same dose of WAY-100635 given i.v. had no effect on this reflex bronchoconstriction. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (50 micrograms kg-1) given i.c., potentiated the capsaicin-evoked reflex bronchoconstriction, whereas buspirone (200 micrograms kg-1) i.c. had no effect. The 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, cinanserin (200 micrograms kg-1) also had no effect. 3. It is concluded that the reflex excitation of pulmonary vagal motoneurones by inhaled capsaicin in alpha-chloralose anaesthetized cats involves the activation of central 5-HT1A receptors.

Using a batch method for incubation of hippocampal slices, we have examined the effects of 5-methoxy-3-(1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-4-pyridinyl)-1H-indole (RU24969) and (m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine (TFMPP) on release of endogenous 5-hydroxytryotamine (5-HT). Release of 5-HT from slices was enhanced by RU24969 and TFMPP at concentrations from 1 to 10 mumols. The 5-HT uptake inhibitors imipramine and fluoxetine, but not the autoreceptor antagonist methiothepin, blocked the enhancement in 5-HT. These results suggest that RU24969 and TFMPP, previously identified as potent agonists at the nerve terminal autoreceptor, also interact at higher concentrations with the reuptake carrier to enhance extracellular levels of 5-HT.

We conclude that the GTP-shift procedure described herein for 5-HT1A receptors may expedite drug discovery efforts by predicting at the same time the affinity and intrinsic efficacy of ligands through a simple, rapid and economic ligand binding assay.

Two sets of new o-methoxyphenylpiperazine (MPP; series a) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (THIQ; series b) derivatives, containing various imide moieties derived from NAN190, were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their ability to bind to the serotonin 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(2A) receptors. All new derivatives from series a demonstrated high 5-HT(1A) affinities, whereas THIQ analogues were much less active. With respect to 5-HT(2A) receptors, three MPP derivatives presented moderate activity but the rest of the investigated compounds were practically inactive. The influence of changes in terminus geometry on 5-HT(1A) receptor affinity was analyzed in regard to model compounds NAN190and MM199.

When mice are introduced into an open-field, they are inclined to explore mainly the peripheral zone of this open-field. This tendency to remain close the walls, called thigmotaxis, decreases gradually during the first minutes of exploration. We have considered the degree of thigmotaxis during this period of decrease as an index of anxiety in mice. This hypothesis has been validated with several reference anxiogenic drugs (dexamphetamine, pentylenetetrazole, yohimbine, idazoxan) which increased thigmotaxis; and with anxiolytic drugs (buspirone, phenobarbital), which reduced it. On this test the selective or non-selective indirect dopamine agonists GBR 12783, dexamphetamine and cocaine induced an increase of thigmotaxis. Finally, the simultaneous involvement of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors has been evidenced in the anxiogenic-like effect associated with an increase of dopaminergic transmissions.