Gelatin microspheres: influence of preparation parameters and thermal treatment on chemico-physical and biopharmaceutical properties.
The role of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in the decidua, fetal membranes and amniotic fluid (AF) has been receiving more and more attention. The MMPs are not only important intermediaries in pathological processes leading to preterm labor but it seems that they also play a crucial role in the activation of labor at term. During normal gestation MMP-1, -2, -3, -7 and -9 are found in the amniotic fluid and fetal membranes. MMP-2 and MMP-3 are expressed constitutively while MMP-9 is barely detectable until labor. At labor, while MMP-9 is the major MMP responsible for gelatinolytic activity in the membranes, MMP-2 is dominant in the decidua. MMP-7 (AF) increases with gestation but does not appear to play a major role in labor. The expression of MMPs is attenuated through the expression of relaxins, integrins and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN). Spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD) may be a product of preterm labor (PTL), preterm premature rupture of membranes (P-PROM) or placental abruption. Each of these processes may have differing pathways but the presence of an intrinsic inflammatory response with or without infection seems to involve all etiologies. The inflammatory response is mediated with cytokines such as interleukins -1, -6 and -8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha. MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-8 appear to be important in these processes. MMP-9, which is the major MMP involved in normal labor, plays an important role in pathological labor as well. Finally, apoptosis seems to play a role in pathological labor, particularly deliveries involving P-PROM. African-American are at greater risk of PTD than white or Hispanic Americans. Environmental differences may not suffice to explain this phenomenon. Genetic polymorphisms of the MMP genes may help explain the greater risk among this population. Finally, manipulating MMPs may have a role in the prevention of PTD. Agents suggested include indomethacin, N-acetylcysteine, progesterone and specific inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 4.
The purpose of this study was to assess the antinociceptive and antiallodynic effect of pyritinol as well as its possible mechanism of action in diabetic rats. Streptozotocin (50 mg/kg) injection caused hyperglycemia within 1 week. Formalin-evoked flinching was increased in diabetic rats as compared to non-diabetic rats. Oral acute administration of pyritinol (50-200 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced flinching behavior in diabetic rats. Moreover, prolonged administration of pyritinol (12.5-50 mg/kg, every 2 days for 2 weeks) reduced formalin-induced nociception. 1H-[1,2,4]-oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, a guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, 2 mg/kg, i.p.), but not naltrexone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg, s.c.) or indomethacin (a non-selective cycloxygenase inhibitor, 5 mg/kg, i.p.), blocked the pyritinol-induced antinociception in diabetic rats. Given alone ODQ, naltrexone or indomethacin did not modify formalin-induced nociception in diabetic rats. Oral acute (200 mg/kg) or prolonged (25 mg/kg, every 2 days for 2 weeks) administration of pyritinol significantly reduced streptozotocin-induced changes in free carbonyls, dityrosine, malondialdehyde and advanced oxidative protein products. Four to 8 weeks after diabetes induction, tactile allodynia was observed in the streptozotocin-injected rats. On this condition, oral administration of pyritinol (50-200 mg/kg) reduced tactile allodynia in diabetic rats. Results indicate that pyritinol is able to reduce formalin-induced nociception and tactile allodynia in streptozotocin-injected rats. In addition, data suggest that activation of guanylyl cyclase and the scavenger properties of pyritinol, but not improvement in glucose levels, play an important role in these effects.
This article provides information on the pathogenesis of aspirin hypersensitivity, cross-sensitivity, and cross-tolerance of different NSAIDs in patients with respiratory types of reactions. Hypersensitivity to aspirin may affect 5-20% of patients with chronic asthma and an unknown fraction of patients with chronic urticaria-angioedema. These patients develop cross-reactions to other, chemically non-related, NSAIDs with strong inhibitory activity towards cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-1 (e.g. indomethacin, naproxen, ketoprofen). Avoidance of aspirin and all cross-reacting NSAIDs as well as education of patients are crucial. As an alternative antipyretic or analgesic drug, aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients may take acetaminophen (paracetamol) in low or moderate doses (<1000mg). Preferential COX-2 inhibitors (nimesulide, meloxicam) are tolerated by the majority but not all hypersensitive patients. Selective COX-2 inhibitors (celecoxib and rofecoxib [withdrawn from the market]) are well tolerated by almost all aspirin-sensitive asthmatic patients. In patients with coronary artery disease requiring treatment with aspirin, desensitization to aspirin may be an alternative approach. Thus, for the majority of patients with asthma and hypersensitivity to aspirin or other NSAIDs, an alternative anti-inflammatory drug can be found. However, in each individual case physicians must consider the choice of an alternative NSAID carefully.