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Functional and motor gastrointestinal disorders.


This is a non-interventional, observational, open label study conducted in 166 centers in Turkey with a 24-week follow-up period.

This randomized-controlled trial involved 120 newly-diagnosed adults with essential hypertension (≥65 years). They were treated with 50 mg of hydrochlorothiazide + 5 mg of hydrochloride amiloride and 5 or 10 mg of amlodipine for 4-6 weeks before they were randomly assigned into exercise group (EG) and control croup (CG). Only EG underwent 12-week aerobic dance training at 50-70 % of heart rate reserve three times per week. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride and total cholesterol were measured and recorded at baseline and post-study.

The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combinations of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) and amlodipine besylate with those of the component monotherapies in patients with mild to severe hypertension.

Amlodipine can improve diastolic and long axis functions of the left ventricle in patients with arterial hypertension and stable angina pectoris.

Replacement of valsartan or candesartan by telmisartan in amlodipine-treated elderly hypertensive patients showed a significant reduction in morning home systolic BP and evening home systolic and diastolic BP at 12 weeks. Switching to telmisartan significantly increased serum adiponectin level.

Amlodipine is comparable to several ARBs in its potential to lower blood pressure. However, it is less effective in prevention of left ventricular hypertrophy and exhibits a higher incidence of clinically adverse events, such as dizziness, fatigue, headache, peripheral edema, and erectile dysfunction.

In order to prevent cardiovascular events, it is essential to effectively manage overall risk of cardiovascular disease. However, despite guideline recommendations to this effect, current management of the major, modifiable cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and dyslipidemia is disconnected and patient adherence to therapy is poor. This is particularly important for patients with multiple cardiovascular risk factors, who are often prescribed multiple medications. The JEWEL study program investigated the use of single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin as a strategy to improve management of these patients. The JEWEL program consisted of two 16-week, international, open-label, multicenter, titration-to-goal studies in patients with hypertension and dyslipidemia. The two studies differed based on country of enrollment and certain tertiary endpoints, but the overall designs were very similar. Patients were enrolled from 255 centers across Canada and 13 European countries. The study was designed to assess the efficacy, safety, and utility of amlodipine/atorvastatin single-pill therapy in a real-world setting. Patients were initiated at a dose of amlodipine 5 mg/atorvastatin 10 mg, unless previously treated, and were uptitrated as necessary. The primary efficacy parameter was the percentage of patients, at different levels of cardiovascular risk, achieving country-specific guideline-recommended target levels for blood pressure and lipids. A secondary analysis of efficacy measured attainment of the same single goal for blood pressure across all study participants (JEWEL I and II) and the same single goal for LDL-C across all study participants (JEWEL I and II). The program utilized a newly developed questionnaire to gain better understanding of participants' beliefs and behaviors towards medical treatment of their multiple risk factors. Approximately 2850 patients were enrolled in the program, which was completed in August 2005. The JEWEL program assessed the effectiveness of a single pill (amlodipine/atorvastatin) in targeting the two principal risk factors for cardiovascular disease simultaneously to achieve nationally applicable treatment targets in a routine clinical practice setting.

The combination of lisinopril and amlodipine is a key for effective, safe control of blood pressure, organoprotection and high adherence to the treatment of patients with hypertension.

The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is an important regulator of the circulation. Its activity is increased in hypertension and heart failure and adversely affects prognosis. Although certain drugs inhibit SNS, dihydropyridine calcium antagonists may stimulate the system. Phenylalkylamine calcium antagonists such as verapamil have a different pharmacological profile. We therefore tested the hypothesis of whether amlodipine, nifedipine, or verapamil differs in the effects on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSA). Forty-three patients (31 men, 12 women) with mild to moderate hypertension were randomly assigned to 1 drug for 8 weeks. Blood pressure, heart rate, and MSA (by microneurography) were measured at baseline and after 8 weeks of treatment. All calcium antagonists led to a similar decrease in blood pressure of 5.0+/-1.5 to 6.4+/-1.4 mm Hg at 8 weeks (P<0.001 versus baseline). There were no significant differences in MSA between groups. With amlodipine, MSA averaged 49+/-3 bursts/min (3 versus baseline); with nifedipine, 48+/-3 bursts/min (2 versus baseline); and with verapamil, 49+/-2 bursts/min (all, P=NS). With verapamil, norepinephrine decreased by 4% but tended to increase by about one third with amlodipine or nifedipine (P=NS). Thus, in hypertension slow release forms of verapamil, nifedipine, and amlodipine exert comparable antihypertensive effects and do not change MSA, although there was a trend toward decreased MSA and plasma norepinephrine with verapamil.