[Estimation of the cost in the medical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia in Navarre, Spain].
Population pharmacokinetic analysis confirms that obesity affects the pharmacokinetics of AMD.
Plasma OPN and Gal-3 predict sustained VT/VF in HF patients at high risk for SCD. Larger prospective studies should outline the role of these biomarkers in predicting SCD on top of conventional risk stratification.
Three patients presented with a visual impairment three to seven months after starting amiodarone therapy. In all three patients both optic discs were swollen and showed hemorrhages on the margin. After discontinuing amiodarone, the vision improved and the swelling of the optic discs resolved.
Cases listing concomitant use of the terms Pradaxa, dabigatran, or dabigatran etexilate with Multaq or dronedarone as the suspect drug from FAERS and cases listing dabigatran and dronedarone as standalone therapies were extracted for analysis.
Amiodarone, an antiarrhythmic drug, causes pulmonary fibrosis in some patients during chronic treatment but the mechanism is unknown. We studied the effects of amiodarone on pulmonary biochemistry, morphology and function at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg/12 hr given to rats by gavage for four weeks. Plasma and pulmonary phospholipids were significantly augmented, 13% and 88% respectively, in the group given amiodarone 50 mg/kg/12 hr compared to pair-fed controls. Typical phospholipidosis-like light and electron microscopic alterations were seen in the lung, their severity related to the extent of biochemical changes induced by amiodarone. Pulmonary function tests revealed mild but not significant changes in O2 and CO2 alveolar exchange efficiency and lung compliance (P-V curve) of treated animals in comparison to pair fed controls. Plasma average concentrations of amiodarone and its main metabolite, desethylamiodarone, after four weeks were 2.46 +/- 0.18 and 0.73 +/- 0.13 micrograms/ml, respectively, in the 50 mg/kg/12 hr group. In the same group amiodarone and desethylamiodarone concentrations in lung were 163 +/- 26 and 569 +/- 153 times higher than those in plasma. A highly significant correlation was found between amiodarone concentrations in plasma and lung and phospholipid content in the lung. A subgroup of animals received amiodarone 50 mg/kg/12 hr for 8 weeks. The pulmonary phospholipidosis-like lesions were similar to those observed after one month of treatment, no fibrosis was evident on light microscopic examination.
The usefulness and problems of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) were examined in patients with reduced heart function. Of 36 patients who received ICD for refractory ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF), VT and/or VF was associated with underlying heart disease in 26 patients, and VF without underlying heart disease in 10. Of the former 26 patients, 13 with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of less than 30% were assigned to group A, 13 with LVEF of greater than 30% to group B, and the other 10 with idiopathic VF to group C. Intraoperative death, cardiac death due to heart failure, sudden death, functional status of the ICD, exacerbation of heart failure symptoms and complications were compared between the three groups. There were no intraoperative deaths in any of the groups. During the median follow-up period of 36 +/- 22 months, there was only one sudden death in group A. There were no significant differences between the three groups. There were five cardiac deaths in group A, but none in groups B or C. The cardiac death-free rates 12, 24, and 36 months after implantation in group A were 83%, 60% and 50%, respectively. These values significantly differed from those in groups B and C (p < 0.05). The number of patients who received defibrillation therapy was higher in group A (p < 0.05). Defibrillation therapy was administered earlier in group A than in groups B and C (p < 0.05). The incidence of exacerbation of heart failure after implantation was 69%, 23% and 0% in groups A, B, and C, respectively. In group A, defibrillation therapy was administered in all patients with exacerbation of heart failure. The administration of defibrillation therapy significantly differed from that in patients without exacerbation of heart failure (p < 0.05). Exacerbation of heart failure during the postoperative acute stage occurred in both patients in group A in whom an epicardial lead system was used, but not in the four patients in group B or five in group C (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the incidence of other complications between the three groups. In group A, patients with reduced heart function, ICD greatly decreased the risk of sudden death. However, heart failure mortality remained high. Therefore, ICD may have limitations for improved prognosis. In group A patients, defibrillation therapy was administered in all patients with exacerbation of heart failure or death due to heart failure. In patients with reduced heart function, treatment for heart failure and prophylaxis of VT and/or VF should be administered.
Despite very numerous and serious side effects amiodarone is an extraordinary drug and can be recommended for use, provided that the physician is very well acquainted with all implications of its use. Large number of studies on a significant number of patients has proven the efficacy of amiodarone in supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias of various origin. The drug is particularly suitable for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmia in patients with serious heart failure and impaired function of the left ventricle. It was successfully used in the treatment of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. In patients after myocardial infarction, intravenously administered amiodarone improved the chances of survival as well as the condition of arrhythmia, preventing spreading of the infarction. It is very convenient against ventricular arrhythmia after the successful resuscitation. Short-lasting intravenous administration of amiodarone does not cause serious side effects.