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Clinical utility of random anti-tumor necrosis factor drug-level testing and measurement of antidrug antibodies on the long-term treatment response in rheumatoid arthritis.


Case report.

Descending necrotizing mediastinitis is a potentially fatal condition which may occur seldom as a consequence of oral infections. This report describes the management of a patient with mediastinitis due to an infected dentigerous cyst.

Forty-five patients applied CLIN/RA once daily to one side of their face every day for 21 days. Patients were randomized to either tretinoin 0.1% (n = 23) or adapalene 0.1% (n = 22) on the contralateral side. A clinical evaluator assessed degree of erythema and scaling; patients provided subjective evaluations of burning, stinging, and itching.

The role of anaerobes in the pathogenesis of infections was investigated. Anaerobes were isolated from 0,25% of blood cultures and from 15,8% of other specimens tested; in 15,1% of cases where anaerobes were isolated, no aerobes were found. The strains most commonly encountered were Bacteroides fragilis, B. melaninogenicus, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius and Clostridium perfringens. Sensitivity tests in vitro showed all organisms to be sensitive to clindamycin, metronidazole and chloramphenicol, while a large proportion were resistant to penicillin G and smaller numbers were resistant to tetracycline.

The incidence of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) differs with the antibiotic and varies from 15 - 25 %. Most cases of AAD are directly or indirectly caused by alterations of gut microflora by the antibiotics resulting in clinically mild AAD cases due to functional disturbances of intestinal carbohydrate or bile acid metabolism. Alternatively, changes in the gut flora allow pathogens to proliferate. Clostridium difficile is responsible for 10 - 15 % of all cases of AAD and almost of all cases of antibiotic-associated pseudomembraneous colitis. There is also a growing body of evidence which supports the responsibility of Klebsiella oxytoca for the development of antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis. Diagnosing Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea should be based both on fecal-cytotoxin detection and culture. With respect to specific therapy, metronidazol has become the first choice whereas treatment with oral vancomycin should be reserved for patients who have contraindications or intolerance to or who have failed to respond to metronidazole. Probiotics such as Sacharomyces boulardii can reduce the risk of development. Restrictive antibiotic policies (e. g. restricting clindamycin and cephalosporins) and the implementation of a comprehensive hospital infection control have also been shown to be effective in reducing the incidence of AAD.

We report the observation of a septic arthritis of the knee complicated within first 36 hours by multiorgan failure including acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), heart failure, acute renal failure and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). A diagnosis of staphylococcal arthritis was suspected confirmed by direct examination, and culture showed a Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to methicillin. The sample sent to the National Reference Centre for Staphylococci (Lyon, France) for genetic analysis confirmed the isolate positive for the PVL gene expression. The fulminating evolution of a septic S. aureus arthritis in an otherwise healthy man should probably evoke the possibility of LPV strain. Anti-PLV antibiotics with anti-staphylococcal activity, such as clindamycin and linezolid should be started without waiting for typing of the S. aureus strain.

Intraamniotic infection is a common (2-4%) event in labor. The predictors of IAI include preterm labor or rupture of membranes, abnormal vaginal flora (e.g., GBS, sexually transmitted disease, bacterial vaginosis), obstetric manipulations (e.g., vaginal exams, internal fetal monitoring) in the presence of ruptured membranes, and diminished host response (due to smoking, drug abuse, obesity, immunodeficiency states, etc.). Group B Streptococcus and Enterobacteriaceae are the most important organisms associated with the polymicrobial infection. Anaerobes predict post-cesarean section complications. Neonatal pneumonia (2-5%) and early neonatal sepsis (1-4%) are the outcomes of the greatest concern and are caused by group B streptococcal or aerobic gram-negative rod infections. These outcomes are kept to a minimum if maternal antibiotic chemotherapy is started interpartum with agents that are safe, cross the placenta, and are active against GBS and Escherichia coli (e.g., ampicillin plus gentamicin). Anaerobic coverage should be added (clindamycin) if a cesarean section is performed. Antipyretics such as acetaminophen will reduce the hyperthermic stress on the fetus, and persistent fetal tachycardia after antipyretics may indicate fetal infection. Continuous electronic fetal monitoring is appropriate in cases of IAI, and providers should be prepared for neonatal resuscitation, early neonatal intravenous antibiotics, and respiratory support at delivery.

Diagnostic criteria for acute otitis media include rapid onset of symptoms, middle ear effusion, and signs and symptoms of middle ear inflammation. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis are the most common bacterial isolates from the middle ear fluid of children with acute otitis media. Fever, otalgia, headache, irritability, cough, rhinitis, listlessness, anorexia, vomiting, diarrhea, and pulling at the ears are common, but nonspecific symptoms. Detection of middle ear effusion by pneumatic otoscopy is key in establishing the diagnosis. Observation is an acceptable option in healthy children with mild symptoms. Antibiotics are recommended in all children younger than six months, in those between six months and two years if the diagnosis is certain, and in children with severe infection. High-dosage amoxicillin (80 to 90 mg per kg per day) is recommended as first-line therapy. Macrolide antibiotics, clindamycin, and cephalosporins are alternatives in penicillin-sensitive children and in those with resistant infections. Patients who do not respond to treatment should be reassessed. Hearing and language testing is recommended in children with suspected hearing loss or persistent effusion for at least three months, and in those with developmental problems.