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Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus.


The once-a-day combination of DDI + 3TC + EFV is an alternative first-line treatment for HIV-1-infected children. Dose adjustment should further improve efficacy.

Chronic hepatitis B patients with chronic kidney disease receiving nucleoside analogues should be followed carefully for treatment efficacy and renal safety. Despite the absence of strong data, entecavir and telbivudine seem to be the preferred options for nucleoside analogue-naive CHB patients with chronic kidney disease, depending on viraemia and severity of renal dysfunction. More studies are certainly needed in this setting.

Exposure to nevirapine in African, HIV-infected infants with low body weight taking FDC tablets appears on average to be adequate, but due to large intersubject variability a relatively high proportion had subtherapeutic nevirapine C12 h levels, particularly those aged less than 5 months.

Half of the studied group was males, and the median age at the time of treatment was 4.8 years (range, 2.6-15). All subjects displayed infection with HBV genotype D and all were HBeAg positive. Half of the patients had been previously treated with lamivudine, while the remaining half was treatment naïve patients. The mean ALT±SD was 84.9±34.7IU/L (range, 46-133) and the mean HBV DNA was 5.01×10(8)±5.7×10(8) IU/mL (range, 5.5×10(7)-1.3×10(9)). Patients were treated with a daily oral dose of 0.5mg entecavir, and the mean duration of treatment was 23.8±11.9 months, (range 14.9-44.7 months). HBV DNA suppression of more than 2 log(10) was achieved in all patients. HBV DNA was undetected in 37.5%, with ALT normalization in 87.5% and lastly HBeAg seroconversion and loss occurred in 37.5%. No adverse side effects were observed during the treatment with entecavir.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share transmission routes and are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to use the Taormina definition of occult HBV infection, together with stringent amplification conditions, to determine the prevalence and characteristics of HBV infection in antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve HIV(+ve) adults in a rural cohort in South Africa. The presence of HBV serological markers was determined by enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA) tests. HBV DNA-positivity was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of at least two of three different regions of the HBV genome. HBV viral loads were determined by real-time PCR. Liver fibrosis was determined using the aspartate aminotransferase-to-platelet ratio index. Of the 298 participants, 231 (77.5%) showed at least one HBV marker, with 53.7% HBV DNA(-ve) (resolved) and 23.8% HBV DNA(+ve) (current) [8.7% HBsAg(+ve): 15.1% HBsAg(-ve)]. Only the total number of sexual partners distinguished HBV DNA(+ve) and HBV DNA(-ve) participants, implicating sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV. It is plausible that sexual transmission of HBV and/or HIV may result in a new HBV infection, superinfection and re-activation as a consequence of immunesuppression. Three HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) participants had HBV viral loads <200 IU/ml and were therefore true occult HBV infections. The majority of HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) participants did not differ from HBsAg(+ve) HBV DNA(+ve) (overt) participants in terms of HBV viral loads, ALT levels or frequency of liver fibrosis. Close to a quarter of HIV(+ve) participants were HBV DNA(+ve), of which the majority were HBsAg(-ve) and were only detected using nucleic acid testing. Detection of HBsAg(-ve) HBV DNA(+ve) subjects is advisable considering they were clinically indistinguishable from HBsAg(+ve) HBV DNA(+ve) individuals and should not be overlooked, especially if lamivudine is included in the ART.

To evaluate the efficacy and safety of indinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg plus stavudine and lamivudine twice daily in antiretroviral-therapy-naive Thai HIV-1-infected patients.

Rates of low BMD in HIV+ children were greater than expected based on normal population distributions. These differences were partially explained by delays in growth. As most HIV+ children in this study had not entered their pubertal growth spurt, prepubertal factors associated with BMD, magnified or carried forward, may result in sub-optimal peak BMD in adulthood.

We compared outcomes among patients initiating TDF + emtricitabine or lamivudine (XTC) + NVP, TDF + XTC + efavirenz (EFV), zidovudine (ZDV) + lamuvidine (3TC) + NVP, and ZDV + 3TC + EFV. We categorized drug exposure by initial ART dispensation by a time-varying analysis that accounted for drug substitutions and by predominant exposure (>75% of drug dispensations) during an initial window period. Risks for death and program failure were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. All regimens were compared with ZDV + 3TC + NVP.

The EFV-based HAART regimen was associated with a reduction in the bioavailability of ENG, which showed decreases of 63.4%, 53.7%, and 70% in the area under the curve (AUC), maximum concentration (Cmax), and minimum concentration (Cmin) of ENG, respectively, compared with the non-HAART group. The LPV/r-based HAART regimen was associated with an increase in ENG bioavailability, which showed 52%, 60.6%, and 33.8% increases in the ENG AUC, Cmax, and Cmin, respectively, compared with the non-HAART group.